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Component Files. La Trobe University w. Abstract: This article attempts a preliminary understanding of the experience—or sensation—of place evoked ptrpersomal the cinema, based on some of the earliest films and their spectators. Perhaps the piece suggests that madness is wirkout property of the sensation of place in the cinema. Animated GIF files, maddening their sources, offer a crude supplementary patchwork commentary.
Proceed to Hypertext….
At the corner of the bar a man in a white suit, probably an American business traveler, asks for more coffee and looks intently at a young professional woman who, seated across the room, is slowly workoug a Martini. The bartender notices his stare and quietly smiles while drying off the sparkling glassware.
The room is dimly light by wall sconces that cast a pale glow over posters of Bogart and Bergman in Casablanca. Five clocks on petersbrg wall mark the time in L. He could be anywhere in the world. The man finishes his coffee, walks slowly to the front door of the Hotel, and exits. He pauses for a moment to light a cigarette and looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida look around. An immense boulevard lies before the building dividing a row of modern structures from an old masonry city wall.
And yet the city owes much of its international fame to the Hollywood movie. Most people can picture Casablanca, although they might have never been there, as a city of tight sinuous streets, claustrophobic markets, parrot lookig, hookah pipes, picturesque locals, and filmic foreigners. What is shocking when we set foot on the pftersburg streets peterxburg Casablanca is that they bear no resemblance whatsoever to the movie: they are ample boulevards lined with modern low rise structures and harboring a bustling metropolitan life.
The movie had placed an emphasis on its own adherence to reality with the authority, and transparent objectivity, implied by the war documentary style of its introductory scenes, where ptrpersonl very real struggle of European refugees in Workut War II is superimposed on a map of Northern Africa and views of the city. To buttress this blurring effect, the film was released in New York on Thanksgiving Dayjust eighteen days after the Allies landed in Casablanca, in an obvious attempt to benefit from the international attention the city was receiving.
In fact, ever since the premiere of floriida motion picture, the virtual and the real cities of Casablanca have coupled in the collective imaginary of the West. A similar feeling would pervade us if, arriving in Paris, we all of a sudden realized the Tour Eiffel did not exist, outside of post cards and films, and that in its place was just a wonderful six-lane highway.
First there ptrrpersonal the economic factor. Moving the crew to Casablanca was certainly more expensive than working in California. Second, the world was at war, and after Pearl Harbor it was clear that US interests were not safe abroad. Traveling to Morocco could mean endangering the crew. Can the ificant gap between the filmic and real cities ptr;ersonal the result of these unfortunate logistic imperatives? Certainly not.
Logistics had nothing to do in the wrongful depiction of uniformed Germans in Casablanca. Another exterior pressure was driving writers and producers to exaggerate and distort the real, one that demanded political effectiveness over historical accuracy: the war. And, in the name of this effort, reality would have to be betrayed by virtuality, and turned into ideology.
If a of historical flaws are consciously present, it is because they were deemed necessary in order to. It is difficult to assess the exact extent to which Casablanca alone influenced the American body politic in deciding to engage in the war. Indeed, the principal importance of both objects resided in their ability to serve as political technologies which helped mobilize the population as a single unit towards war.
In the late 19th century, German and French imperialistic interests clashed in Morocco, turning control of the West-African country into a veritable arm-wrestle where military force, and the ability to rapidly mobilize troops and armament, were measured up before an imminent conflict. Although the film and the city bear no visual resemblance, this is not to say that they have nothing in common.
As we shall see, they share a of particulars which, understood historically, cast new light onto the performative potential of architecture and film as social practices in contemporary society. To begin let us return to the most obvious commonality: the blatant interpretative liberties not to say disregard that both objects exhibit towards their pre-existing context.
French deers, far from employing or referencing local typologies in their plans, imposed a Beaux Arts spatiality to their new cities, which they then adorned, if ever so slightly, with simulated Moroccan motifs Koranic script is conveniently erased in the French versions. In fact, we know that French administrators amassed large reference libraries of photographs and drawings documenting existing Moroccan buildings and cities, 1 and that Hollywood production deers used photographs of French Casablanca as a reference in their work.
Now, if only for a moment, we make a backward leap to the fourth century B. In his construction of the Ideal Republic, Plato describes rhetoric as a fundamental technology of politics. It was the art used by the orator in convincing an assembly that a particular course of action was good and virtuous. Of course for Plato, this orator, a man capable of persuasion, should also be a man capable of discerning right from wrong and of determining what pstersburg and public policies might ensure or enable the individual happiness of all citizens—i.
Already in the Republic it is clear that the notion of representation is a prerequisite for the very existence of politics. Unfortunately, Plato—who was as we know a fine orator—had more than a few difficulties carrying on his self-appointed mission as ptrpetsonal in the public sphere. His mentor Socrates, another able speaker, had already met an untimely death for not holding his tongue before the state. War, in ptrpersona case the Peloponnesian War, combined with the instability of the B.
The Idea floorida War was a specter so powerful it could fracture and dismantle any rhetorical presentation constructed by philosophers. This for Plato was the root of all the social evil of his time. Thinking men, concerned with the able exegesis of the real, had been cast off from politics by men of action in the name of the war. A new technology of politics, the spectacle of war had befallen every transaction of state affairs, threatening to subvert any attempt to understand the real by simply establishing a new reality by decree.
If the goal of politics is to conduct the public affairs of a body of people, it is also necessarily woriout exercise control over the agency of individuals in the name of efficiency. State affairs loooing deemed too complex looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida explain to everyone, yet they must somehow meet with the support of pteersburg affected by them if the government is to function effectively. Therefore, policies and directives, once resolved at the legislative level, must be presented as the best and most desirable solutions, and communicated to the socius in simple but persuasive terms.
In this sense, war is a perfect political technology: It exercises its political strength by placing an emphasis on difference, and rallying a particular and otherwise heterogenic socius into a cohesive unit—within which difference is not tolerated. It is a condensation of complex diplomatic relations into a simple and understandable right and wrong: either you are in or out; it is a matter of life or death.
Plato himself, however against men of action, recognized political virtue in war, and sought the unification of dissenting Greek states by projecting the Idea of War against the Persians onto the minds of his interlocutors. In this way, when the children-turned-adults would hear of a possible battle, they would be so stricken by fear that they would rally together to protect themselves against the oncoming perils.
The Idea of War, as prospect or memory of bloodshed, can be stimulated in the socius as pure representation, functioning as a political technology more efficiently, permanently, and economically than war itself—armed conflict as a political practice is, as. Late fifteenth century. Turin, Codex Saluzzianusfol. Historically, during times of peace, the tools employed in war walls, fortresses, shields, armors, weapons, and banners served as its mnemonic symbols in public spectacles i.
For instance, the political power of wall circuits, constructed around cities up until the 19th century, went well beyond their physical resistance to projectiles. These military structures established, in a simple spatial language, those that stood outside or inside the body politic, and served as permanent reminders to both inhabitants and visitors of the threat of aggression. The idea of the encircling wall generated theoretical workut and images of anthropomorphic cities that buttressed the notion of a collective body struggling for survival, and emphasized the concept of allegiance between citizens.
Not surprisingly in these representations the noblest part of the city was the military fortress. Indeed these objects exercise their communicative capacity by manipulating the material reality of the world, but there workouf more. A military wall will, at one level, be understood as separation primarily because it divides us from each other, but, at another level, the wall will always be exercising a deictic reference to war, for it is only because of armed conflict that its existence is justifiable.
Efforts such as the French and American versions of Casablanca were conceptually similar to the fortress wall insofar as they were, first and foremost, visualization technologies aimed at propagating a homogeneous, orderly, politicized world view. The Idea of War was mobilized in both as a means of internal control, as a kind of endogenous war where victory was determined not by fire power but by persuasive ability, petrsburg they aimed not at killing but at rallying supporters for a particular political platform by affecting their perceptual fields.
To answer our original question, the extent to which the film and the modern city manipulated perceived notions of reality was directly proportional to these political aims. As political technologies, both objects could only be effective if they paid careful attention to establishing a play on the real that remained within the parameters of the dominant perceptual modes of the times, that is, within the general field of what reality was understood to be.
We have intentionally begun by discussing a simple vertical plane a city fporida which performed simultaneously as a tool to apportion space, as a military defense, and as a vehicle of propaganda, to stress the convergence of architecture, war, and politics around a notion of reality that was centered on territory, space, and time. Architecture is, ontologically, a field of endeavor concerned with the manipulation of space in time.
Understandably, so long as the realm of the real has been circumscribed by these two concepts, architecture has stood as the prime tool to manipulate it. There are striking similarities between the social conditions that prompted politicized institutions to use Casablanca city and Casablanca film as propaganda vehicles for the Idea of War.
The years preceding both works are times when internal crisis, social ;etersburg, and discord menaced the prevailing order of things. Consider the following descriptions of conditions in France in the s and the United States in the s:. Aesthetic disarray and moral decay shared the same root, in that both seemed to reveal fundamental weaknesses, most notably a pervasive apathy, in French society itself.
From University lecterns, church pulpits, and town council halls came repeated calls for "rejuvenation," "moral education. Wright Among intellectuals and in centers of political power, the importance of cultural myths to social stability was a seriously debated topic The widespread doubt about traditional American Myths threatened to become a dangerous political weakness.
In politics, industry and the media there were men and women Sklar In either scenario the prevailing sentiment was one of generalized disillusionment with the present. The cacophony ptrperwonal divergent opinions resulted in the perception that traditional values were being lost, and that a once-united socius had fallen into disorder workoug degeneracy. To ptrpesonal this, recreating the illusion of a single body politic became a national priority.
The imperative for both nations was the same: to steer the masses, as a cohesive unit, back to the values that had traditionally stood as symbols of national identity and pride. Needless to say, this was a conservative effort, a folding back onto safe ground, a regrouping of the troops to gather new strength. Two marked international crises ensued, one in and one inwhich almost resulted in an early start to World War I.
To carry out his orders, the French official would need a vehicle not only capable of carrying the message, but in itself the verifiable proof of the message. Concerned with making visible the new territoriality, he fashioned the request for presence on a millenary tradition of staking out the ground: architecture. He resolved to erect French buildings on Moroccan soil and to make Casablanca his first test case.
From the outset, the city was understood as a weapon deployed in the theater of inter-national and intra-national warfare. It was looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida counterattack to Germany that simultaneously marshaled the Idea of War before the French socius, binding it together in the common cause of national defense. The Colonel was not alone in his thinking. Whereas the tenuous political strength of regional administrators in France prevented these theories from being implemented on French soil, the pressing need to control Morocco made the Western Mahgreb a fertile culture for experimentation.
The French needed only to secure their traditional values through new, clearly planned cities, a spirited and forceful government like his ownand a consolidated socius, in order to become, once more, a great nation and empire. Architecture offered Lyautey a means to guarantee the extended temporal presence of France in North Western Africa. By grounding French structures in Peetersburg, Lyautey was very consciously making visible the new status of the Moroccan geography. The first military barracks, erected around the old medina, were quickly followed by a full blown national Architecture and Urbanism program that legislated the growth and aesthetic character of all major Moroccan towns.
French architects like Henry Prost, Joseph Marrast, Adrien Laforgue, and Albert Laprade were handpicked, summoned to serve as functionaries of the state, and charged with all the public commissions. In their hands lay the responsibility of transforming the physical milieu to convey the new political order. The approach seemed to yield positive. In addition, inLyautey established the Architecture and Urbanism Department under the direction of Henry Prost, to devise master plans for the new towns, draft zoning ordinances, and de all public structures, and canonize styles.
The effect was the production of perfectly controlled urban environments. Casablanca sprang up as a veritable phantasmagoria, in perfect communion with the aims of the state. Prost and Lyautey were convinced that their city would soon become the New York of Africa, through a convenient marriage of architectonic aesthetizations of politics and iron-fisted socio-economic policies.
Unfortunately, the main objective of their collaboration—to make an international presentation of the solidity of the French Empire to the world in lokoing face of imminent war—was dramatically behind schedule.
Architecture, as an looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida visualization technology of politics, had been rendered outmoded by the speed of war: There were simply no funds to build Casablanca. However, instead of postponing construction until the finances were made available, colonial administrators opted for increasing the speed of construction at all costs.
The intention was clear, and it was quite obviously Haussmanian: the surface of architecture would be spread over the city like a varnish to cover its discontinuities. A surface rendition of unity, a new reality, spreading over the dismembering city. The foremost task of architects was shifting from their traditional role as organizers and looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida of programmatic activities in space, to a new and awkward responsibility to produce the stage sets of a photographically ordered, almost two-dimensional, city.
Deing on the run, architects valued aesthetic clarity over content. What initially seemed a strategic refusal to accept reality was actually a deliberate effort to construct an alternate reality, which was deemed essential for the survival of the empire. Lyautey could not turn back. Forced to keep up with the pace of war and to de at an accelerated rate, architects had to draw from conventions and ready-made solutions, to install meaning rather than to excavate it, to produce the real.
Notwithstanding the strategically choreographic maneuverings carried out in Morocco to demonstrate military superiority without physical confrontation, World War I broke out in It took the death of millions of men, three years of trench warfare, and the near exhaustion of the industrial production machine the Allied effort almost came to a halt a year into the conflict due to scarcity in munitionsto make commanders realize that the technological advances of weaponry had transformed the logics of battle beyond their comprehension.
To look beyond to the other trench meant being seen, and whatever was visible was the potential target of artillery and snipers. Already during World War I, photographic technology had proved quite attuned to the new perceptual exigencies of the war machine there were regular air reconnaissance operations carried out, especially by the US expeditionary corps, to document troop movements. A veritable coupling of the art of war and the art of chronophotography was being achieved that rapidly turned film into a weapon.
According to Paul Virilio, the possibility of this amalgam was rooted in the similitude of space-time distortions produced by technological advances in modern war and in cinema:. For the disappearance of the proximity effect in the prosthesis of accelerated travel made it necessary to create a wholly simulated appearance that would restore three-dimensionality to the message in full As in cinema, what happens is governed not by a single space-time principle but by its relative and contingent distortion, the capacity of repressive response depending upon the power of anticipation.
As the cataclysmic events of the Great War unfolded, the trust placed on the ability of spatial technologies to control the crowd was put into crisis: The inertia of physical barriers could not match the explosive power of new projectiles. However, French officials insisted on the relevance of urbanity.
But, because of the exigencies of the war, they were forced to rely on the image of urbanity over its real presence, to convey the idea. The profits went to benefit wartime construction. Prompted by the critical importance of convincing the world that French Casablanca was a reality, even if it was not a finished product, the colonial government deployed an aggressive publicity campaign, hiring travel writers, photographers, poster artists, and filmmakers. As early asjournalists, like Reginald Rankin of the London Times, were regularly sent to the city to report on current events.
Official journals like La Renaissance du Maroc were founded with the objective of disseminating the image of French Morocco, and of lauding the work of French professionals architects were deliberately compared to renaissance masters, salvaging and re-interpreting the Islamic past. In this and other similar periodicals, French-built cities were continuously described as generating the kind of civic morality needed in France at the time.
Just as the city wall had at once been a physical instrument of military deterrence that literally contained the socius, Casablanca had been constructed as a spectacular deterrence mechanism that would unite France under a single effort. But it was becoming increasingly evident that the political task of the city was being carried out in other fields of endeavor.
The gap in temporality between the political commission and the architectural delivery was being filled in, almost imperceptibly, by photographs and written s that were twice-removed from the real. But in these photographs, the memory of the Idea of War was alive, much more alive than in the actual cities. In fact, photography could already be classified as a military weapon. Photography, as a medium, was not only the primary source of military surveillance, but also the new synthetic battlefield.
Children would no longer have to be sent to view the spectacle of war. It could be delivered to them with the same intensity as it was experienced by military commanders behind the lines: in pictures and, not much later, in moving pictures. Lyautey had originally thought of the flourishing tourist industry as a means to exhibit his urbanistic prowess and to boost the economy. To create a desire for the Pstersburg public to visit Morocco, Lyautey sent his architects to Paris to reconstruct fragments of the Empire.
But tourism was still too selective and fkorida, entailing long trips from Fflorida to Oran and then to Casablanca. However, the touristic gaze could be molded, controlled, and allowed to perceive the colonies, without actual travel, through representation. It was becoming increasingly evident that architecture could no longer serve either as a petersbkrg means of military deterrence nor as a sufficiently expedient political technology.
The Tharauds willingly came under the mandates of the colonial administration—probably thinking they were helping bring morale back to the disconcerted French socius—and produced a wealth of popular s on Moroccan cities. The two brothers traveled much of the Mahgreb and the globe for that matter in military planes, peering down at the work of the empire from the sky, as their compatriot fighter pilots had targeted objectives with their guns and cameras during World War I.
What is interesting in the work of the Tharauds is that, as Emily Apter has pointed out, they repeatedly described their aeronautic eye as a cinematograph panning across the landscape, evidencing the fact that filmic vision had already become the predominant perceptual mode of their era. The residual components of an unfinished Casablanca were being reconstituted according to a new cinematic logic which defied single space-time relationships, and which was increasingly independent of the ground, of space, and of architecture.
Giovanni Pastrone, the Italian Futurist filmmaker, contemporary of Epstein, saw the camera not as an instrument to produce realistic portraits but as an instrument to falsify dimensions. Epstein dreamt of being inside his characters, of moving with them and seeing what they saw. Many years later, the electronic light of laser holography and integrated-circuit computer graphics would confirm this relativity in which speed appears as the primal magnitude of the image and thus as the source of its depth.
Virilio By the time the next world war was brooding, it was clear that speed of communication the kind of speed that Architecture could not deliver was a determinant factor in victory. In speed lay the new possibility of military superiority. Up until the nineteenth century, permanent military fortifications had produced the effect of surprise with the help of booby traps, ditches, and moving gates or walls.
Where the enemy was once startled by spectacular architectures, now he would be paralyzed by the looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida appearance of images floridda s on monitor screens that simulated the field of battle. Here we find evidence of how architecture, serving outdated political technologies of territorial conquest, proved inefficient and was supplanted by more effective mechanisms of fo war films.
In the late s and early 40s, when the US felt the danger of war approaching, and fears of unpredictable mass actions causing social breakdown began to resurface, spatial technologies could no longer be considered as viable solutions to curb internal political weaknesses. With the pressing need to wake its population to the new reality of industrialized production and destruction, the political machine turned not to lookint but to movie producers.
The Hollywood studios, understanding that their own distribution networks and economic survival were at stake, answered the call to arms with a rich assortment of war movies that focused on bringing the aspirations and desires of the population closer to the political goals of the state. The particular attraction of film lforida that it comfortably slid under the skin or should we say pupils of a socius increasingly accustomed to equating reality with their cinematic perceptions of the world.
Film, as a technology of politics, was unburdened by the immobility and territorial constraints of architecture. It was almost instantaneous, affecting the entire population simultaneously, and offering as commodities pure emotions and ideas. The message reached the entire population almost instantly. Eighty million citizens, more than half of the US pttpersonal at the time, crowded movie houses every week, drawing 83 percent of the total spent on recreation by Americans.
Television, still in its infancy, remained a luxury for the majority—only 8, US homes had TV sets in Ray Hollywood held distribution networks that spanned the world, making the profits reaped internationally by Casablanca upon release roughly equal US takings—the production, which had cost little over a million dollars, made almost six million dollars at the box office. The world was at war, and Casablanca was fired at the population to reinforce the idea of a collective project, and of particular values and codes that stood in contrast to those of other nations.
The film was aimed at uniting the nation, rallying it against the forces that endangered traditional looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida bonds. This is an archetypal military concept, yet, in Casablanca, its logic appears to us lookint relation to the delirium of industrialized production, and acquires new meaning and relevance.
What is fascinating, and at the same time terrifying, about the American and French mobilizations of Casablanca is that they used aesthetics that were fundamentally militaristic as a means to solve socio-political problems. Both summoned the Idea of War as a reductivist filter of state affairs, where clear distinctions between what is correct and good, and what is deviant and bad were established and propagated, by responding to political demands with the theatrics of warfare.
Industrial production had delaminated the human senses, and projected them beyond time and space, subverting the old ways of experiencing the world. If reality is perception, the impulses sent by the new photographic eyes of the armies to the minds of their fellow men were visions of a whole new universe. Architecture, as a structure that, in a strange double motion, casts the condition of the ground in the visible by standing over it and veiling it, could not stand on top of this new, infinitely expanding dominion.
As in architecture, the ability of cinema to perform its exegesis of the new ground could only be carried out by covering it, by concealing the original. Just as the ground remains under buildings allowing them to stand, territories and space remain under the surface of film as its supporting scaffolding. In Casablanca one can perceive the sequence unfolding, from ground to architecture to film, as a function of war. Each vehicle of representation, forged in accordance to the conditions of reality, was superseded when the general perception of that reality changed.
The thread that guides us through this protean sequence is politics, for the changing perceptions of reality ushered in with each evolution of communication technologies threatened chaos and instigated the need to establish order. The political deployment of the Idea of War in architectural or filmic vehicles, as a means to structure disorder, marks the extension of perceptual realities that characterize our contemporary condition.
Casablanca, as rendered in stone or film, does not exemplify the ending and the beginning of mutually exclusive realities, but the buttressing simultaneity of perceptions that constitute our understanding of the world today, from the immediacy of the spaces we live in, to the poliverses of overlapping global territories we inhabit. The Rabat headquarters of the Bureau of Fine Arts, for example, boasted a collection of 25, photographs of various Moroccan buildings.
See: Gwendolyn Wright. Some of the original photographic and textual references, provided by the Warner Bros. The dependency of a building to its site is perhaps better understood in philosophical terms. Philosophy is the construction of propositions characterized by their ability to stand up. See Virilio Contemporary discussions about gender in cyberspace often rely on assumptions about the immanently liberatory potential of technology. Animated image constructed by author using Man With a Movie Camera production stills.
But amid all the enthusiasm for a postgender cyberspace, it is important to remember that Haraway is not the first to imagine a world without gender in the coupling of humans and machines. The writers of the Futurist movement of the early twentieth century precede her vision, but to achieve it they called for the elimination of the feminine. Particularly in the work of Dziga Vertov, filmmaker and theorist of the early Soviet era, the anti-feminist stance of the Italian Futurists is rejected in favor of a representational strategy that privileges women as filmic subjects without reinforcing patterns of visual pleasure that support bourgeois patriarchal ideology.
By foregrounding its own process of production, and displaying both men and women involved in creating the film, Man With a Movie Camera radically departs from the bourgeois conventions which all Futurists despised; but it does so without looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida women. As a historical representation of the cyborg that promotes strategies for minimizing the hierarchical stratification of gender, the film serves as a model for contemporary discussions of postgender cyberspace.
After being conquered by Futurist eyes our multiplied sensibilities will at last hear with Futurist ears. In this way the motors and machines of our industrial cities will one day be consciously attuned, so that every factory will be transformed into an intoxicating orchestra of noises. In creating a postmodern cyborg subjectivity, Haraway acknowledges changes in our conception of the various binary structures which modernist notions of subjectivity were founded upon.
The early Futurists would have found it difficult to engage in this particular border dispute. As modernists they were thoroughly entrenched in the kind of binary thinking that separated organic from inorganic and masculinity from femininity. As a result their conception of the cyborg is only apparent through their pairings of men and machines in their art. This follows the oft-quoted statement in point 4 which affirms that a roaring motorcar is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.
Lookin and femininity belonged to the past, to the 19th century. The future belonged to men. The Russian Futurists were different, petersburv, like the Italians, they disdained the past and the various institutions which preserved it. Throw Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, etc. But Russian Futurism and Italian Futurism were never as closely aligned as their common name would suggest.
And when Marinetti came to Russia in Januarythe Russian Futurists met him with complete animosity The list contains points 1 through 4. It skips points 5 and 6, then ptrpeersonal points 7 and 8, but leaves out 9, 10 and 11 Burliuk The points Brik repudiates in this crucial essay reveal the stark differences between Russian and Italian Futurism.
Perhaps the most objectionable notions, though, are contained in point 9. In the work of Dziga Vertov, we can see how the Russian Futurists recuperated the essentially cyborg notion of combining technology and humanity from the misogynist trap into which the Italians fell. The Kino-Eye, then, is a cyborg construction that contains multiple positions for the production of film meaning. Those positions were obviously looknig so that equitable contrib utions could be made from representatives of each gender.
The apparently uneven of males and females in the Council of Three will be explained later, in light of the importance of editing in Soviet filmmaking, relative to the other stages of pro duction. It is the first example of a theory of the cyborg that does not rely on a misogynistic eradication of the feminine in order to unite man and machine.
Not only does it allude to the need for a filmic subject able to transcend the imprecision of the traditi onal psychologically motivated narrative, but this same subject must not looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida gendered in a way which implicates the viewer in the logic of the look peteersburg essential to maintaining power relationships in patriarchal culture.
This is where Man With a Movie Camera presents the greatest challenge to mainstream filmmaking. While excluding man as subject of the film, Vertov also includes woman as maker of meaning. Man With a Movie Camera begins with a shot of a movie camera, facing the viewer, and from out of the top of the camera a miniature Mikhail Kaufman climbs with his camera and tripod, aims it at the offscreen space to the right, and begins to crank.
A cut reveals the top of a building, which, according to the conventions of mainstream narrative cinema, where the spectator identifies with the look of a character, is presumably the object the came raman is filming. But already this simple association begins to subvert those conventions it appears to follow, as Judith Mayne points out in her analysis of this segment:.
The following two shots repeat a similar pattern with slight differences. In shot three, the cameraman is seen at an increased distance; and the angle of shot four, a la mppost, is slightly different from the angle of shot two. A puzzling reversal occurs as well: the off-center but nonetheless continuous match between shots one and two is impossible between shots three and four, since in shot three the cameraman picks u p his equipment and moves off-screen.
Thus a sense of continuity is established and violated at the same time Mayne Following these four brief shots, we see the cameraman, now in scale with his surroundings, entering the movie theater through the curtains and heading to the projection booth. He then thre the projector with what the logic of continuity driven cinema would have us believe is the film he has just exposed. This completely elides the processes in between shooting and screening a film. Again, a sense of continuity is established and violated.
This is a crucial point, and will be returned to shortly, but I will first address a problem regarding the opening sequence. In fact it is possible to determine this even before the venetian blind scene as Mayne displays in stating:. From the very beginning In other words, the cameraman cannot be equated with a central character, or even the central narrating i ntelligence of a narrative film, since visual perspective is not localized in a single figure, but dispersed through multiple perspectives.
This notion of the visual subject dispersed through multiple perspectives is as fundamental to an understanding of the Kino-Eye as an essentially cyborg construction as the combining of human and machine, which is also seen throughout the film. The Kino-Eye, then, can be understood as an ideological weapon, a cyborg combination of human and movie camera, which both creates and depends upon multiple perspectives for its interpretation and communication.
Through a new form of visua lization it begins to destabilize the various hierarchies which patriarchal capitalism depends upon for maintaining hegemonic dominance. The most prevalent hierarchy destabilized is gender. Several writers have commented on the complex way that gender is questioned in Man With a Movie Camera since most of the subjects of the camera are women.
Kaufman is the human figure who appears most frequently in the film, but he never appears in close-up, thereby making character identification quite difficult, and he never appears without his camera, flotida suggests that he is not gendered male, but cyborg. In other words he is lookint man as bearer of the look, but man, bearer of the camera. Svilova appears about 21 minutes, or one-third of the way into this minute film, seated at her editing table, with scissors in hand, ptpersonal the film and cement-splicing it into new patterns.
About one minute before she appears a series of freeze-frame stills, beginning with a horse pulling a carriage and ending with close-up faces of people, appears for the first time in the film.
In some of the images we even see the perforated sprocket holes at the edge of the frame, completely demystifying the illusion of cinematic continuity as well as mimesis. Further examples of the way that gender is destabilized by the Kino-Eye include the ambiguous nature of the eye itself when reflected in the lens of the camera. For Kirby, the Kino-Eye is a feminine machine set in motion, workouh awakened by the passing of a train over the body of the cameraman.
But I see a more gender-neutral identity for the Kino-Eye. In the sequence of shots Kirby cites approximately eight and a half minutes into petersbudg filmthe cameraman does appear to be run over by the train lookign the very point when a woman worout and begins to look around. But immediately following the shots comprising his being run over, which include close-ups of his feet and head on the tracks, quickly spliced workput shots gor the train rushing by, the cameraman gets up unscathed and walks back to a car waiting to drive him away.
The fact that zt cameraman is completely unharmed by his encounter with the train rules out any possibility of perceiving this sequence as strictly violent. But the eroticism is always mitigated by the gender-neutrality of the Kino-Eye, which does not indulge in the kind of scopophilic fantasy narrative so common in mainstream Hollywood cinema. The erotic undercurrents in Man With ptrpfrsonal Movie Camera are impossible to explain using theories in which desire is either masculine or feminine, but theories of the cyborg explain the eroticism in this film quite adequately.
William R. Macauley and Angel J. But in Man With a Movie Camera, the merger that occurs is as much with the awakened woman as it is with technology. This is the looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida source of the erotic undercurrent in Man With a Movie Camera. The Kino-Eye is neither masculine nor feminine. No less bold was his decision to emphasize the contribution of women. Man With a Movie Camera presents these two separate agendas seamlessly in a direct reversal of the Classical Hollywood style which hides zt process of production.
Classical Hollywood Cinema also presents woman as spectacle for masculine pleasure. The pleasure in Man With a Movie Camera begins with liberation from gender hierarchy. In contemporary florica of gender in cyberspace the equitable representation of women is not a foregone conclusion. The cyborg has done as much to reify existing stereotypes about gender as it has to eradicate them.
Hyper-masculine cyborg creations potrayed by Arnold Schwarzenneger in the Terminator movies suggest that the dream of the Italian Futurists, a world devoid of women, leaving only men and machines, rules Hollywood today. For this reason it is even more important to seek out historical representations of the cyborg that promote strategies for minimizing the hierarchical stratification of gender. In this paper I have tried to suggest that there is a wealth of relevant theory in the revolutionary work of the Russian Futurists.
Once again, an early Ptrpersoonal preoccupation is evident—exactly the same might be said foe The Shining or Full Metal Jacket and most of his circularly organized looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida. Rather than stress the intimations of early Kubrick in The KillingI want to explore what it does rather strikingly on its own terms—to express temporal notions of simultaneity and overlap.
The ingenious, complex narrative structure is worth some examination in its own right. The Killing goes backward from the very beginning, and its end is where we start, so the entire movie is a series of elliptical goings-back. The chart is of roughly the second half of the film, which all takes place in one day—the day of the robbery and the subsequent capture of Johnny, the leader or should we say recapture, as a week earlier, at the start of the film, he had just been let out of jail.
Floridda horizontal line of the chart represents the character announced by the narrator, always in terms of where they are at the start of a sequence and importantly, what time of day this action is taking place. By following these indicators, we can construct the chart. Each colored rectangle represents a narrative sequence; the gaps indicate temporal breaks.
Ordinarily we would have to line up the sequences in time, as shown in floriida chart. When do we go backwards? By a lot or a little? And more importantly, when do we go back over time we have already seen elsewhere or by ptrpdrsonal other point of view? When we do, as we might expect, ptrpersonnal overlap and the expressions of simultaneity are considerable. The film has some interesting means to express simultaneity, generally through repetition, which perhaps keeps it from being completely impossible to follow.
However, its genius lies in the conceptual nature of this enterprise, the glimpses of a grand de which are far larger than the simple s that can initiate the investigation. Easy-to-read repetitions obviously include the racetrack announcer, who can tell us that the seventh race is about to begin or a horse is down. Flotida use of this kind of construction is not unique to The Killing. What is unique is the extent to which it becomes the organizing principle of the work. There is, in fact, flofida one true flashback in the film, tossed tor like one of those moments in a jazz improvisation where the melody is played straight, to show that the person breaking the rules knows what they are.
That one flashback occurs in a scene in which most of florrida gang are still alive and are back at their rendezvous-apartment. In The Killing we lurch back and forth in a manner that only comes to make sense retrospectively. Along with the narrator, the failed mastermind Johnny warns us of this difficulty in seeing the big picture.
Johnny is that combination of grandiose, power-mad genius and dumb sap so familiar in Kubrick—in no small ways, something like both God and a film director. Johnny is under the thumb of the narrator as completely as all other characters, and while he gets somewhat more attention see the chart againhe has no privileged position. The king on the chessboard is still a piece, and still as vulnerable to attack. An important consequence of this temporal strategy is spatial isolation, although we could as well reverse the equation—the sequences of workotu lead to the temporal overlaps the small diagram below seeks to represent this notion.
Members of the gang during the course of the robbery rarely see each other. As such, the little boxes of the chart have a petersbugg in the separation of spaces. Even though most of the film takes place at one racetrack, our view of it is greatly fragmented. The task of filling in the spaces, as it were, is just as conceptual as the temporal ordering. In both cases, the filling in is a mental activity on our part of grand des Kubrick suggests through his ingeniously fragmentary construction.
We as much have to figure out a temporal ordering as a spatial arrangement; the two, of course, strongly depend upon each other. Attempts were made, fortunately to no avail, to see if the film could be recut and presented in a more classical manner LoBrutto These last-minute fears about intelligibility have, of course, dogged Kubrick throughout his career.
Even in floridaa simple a view, some things become apparent a bit more easily.
For one, the space of the film is extremely limited maybe not much bigger than the Looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida Hotel in The Shiningsay. In other words, temporal isolation enforces spatial separation. Also, the spaces are used as isolated fragments. Even though no more than a door or a window may separate two spaces, they are as likely to be shown to us in separated temporal segments. The same can be said many times, of money bags, girl friends, cops.
Seen as a construction in this manner, The Killing becomes something like what it already is, a grandly conceptual vision that perhaps can be expressed in something like a video game as much as a movie, or as much a chessboard filled with game pieces as a jigsaw puzzle. To that end, I have taken the visual pieces included here and put together a way to explore the film which uses space and time to explore each other.
To look at one key moment in a bit more detail, we can examine the all-important shooting of Red Lightning, which als the delay Johnny using a wise Kubrick strategy that allows the money to be in one place long enough for Johnny to steal it. In virtually every one of the episodes, not everything goes according to plan, but it goes smoothly enough to keep the whole enterprise lurching forward.
Nikki shoots the horse as he was hired to do, but is himself killed. Earlier when accepting the asment, Nikki has theorized what the effects of his act will be, but Johnny characteristically insists upon the importance of his remaining in the dark. Like Major Kong in Strangelovethe guy who delivers the goods is the first to go. In another near screw-up, after sending the money through the window, Johnny escapes as planned, but only because the drunken Marv has ignored his instruction to stay away from the track and is there to bump into a returning security guard.
Are we seeing unplanned contingencies or major errors? Is there a grand de? The horse-shooting suggests the general orientation—the isolated pieces fit in terms of a strategy, but the foul-ups can never be fully ed for. The Killing seems to offer a similar conclusion, but it veers into more complex territory. The ability to conceive the exploit, like the bone-becoming-weapon in A Space Odysseycarries both the brilliance of the plan and with it the capacity for self-destruction.
The titleby the way, is also a nice temporal indicator. The problem lies in the difference between the elegant conceptual construction and the need to use human beings to execute that construction. What makes The Killing particularly brilliant is that its own daring construction exposes that process so extensively. This article assumes the reader looking for workout ptrpersonal st petersburg florida already seen the film, so no summary is provided.
For one very useful breakdown of the film, see Falsetto Quoted by Falsetto, The author wishes to acknowledge the contributions of one of his students, Kevin Scharff, to the 3-D model. University of Maryland and Nanyang Technological University tgmarchetti ntu. This give and take between Hong Kong or China and the world necessitates a new way of thinking about film culture that transcends the linguistic and cultural determinism of national cinema as well as the aesthetic strictures of established auteurs, genres, and styles.
The politics of multiculturalism has recently been hotly debated within American society. Scholarship coming from a variety of disciplines has sought to engage this problem see Shohat and Stam. How can culture be looked at within the context of a national body politic when that body is divided by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality? Within these debates, the centrality of the economy and globalization of the culture industry cannot be neglected. Filmmakers, for example, may live in one country, make all their films in a second country, and find financing in a third, while hoping to address a global, polyglot audience with a localized narrative.
The oeuvre of Evans Chan can be taken as a case study of the difficulty and the necessity of developing a transcultural approach within film studies. His films straddle the gulf between the international art film and Hong Kong commercial cinema, and thus have also attracted some international art film viewers. To date, Chan has completed two features, To Liv e 2 and Crossings 3 Both these films openly address issues that find only a marginal voice in the mainstream cinema of Hong Kong and the United States.
With one foot in the United States and the other in Hong Kong, Chan can freely address diverse issues. Each film looks at the processes of immigration and dispersal involving the Chinese globally. In this way, Chan creates a transnational, transcultural discourse through the medium of the motion picture, pointing to a new type of cultural sphere that must be noted within film studies see Lu, Franncia, and Fore. Jameson notes that the film is poised between the modern and the postmodern:.
What we must admire, therefore, is the way in which the filmmaker has arranged for these two powerful interpretative temptations--the modern and the postmodern, subjectivity and textuality--to neutralize each other, to hold each other in one long suspension in such a way that the film can exploit and draw on the benefits of both, without having to commit itself to either as some definitive reading, or as some definitive formal and stylistic category.
Besides Edward Yang's evident personal mastery, the possibility of this kind of mutually reinforcing suspension may owe something to the situation of Third-World cinema itself, in traditions in which neither modernist nor postmodern impulses are internally generated, so that both arrive in the field of production with a certain chronological simultaneity in full post-war modernization.
To Liv e and Crossings can be looked at in a similar way. They can be seen as works suspended between the modern and the postmodern; indeed, their textual strategies rely on this deeply rooted indeterminacy to explore people and issues that are themselves difficult to determine.
Like Yang, Chan is profoundly influenced by European cinema. Other bankrupt retailers have found a second life online. The overhead is low and there are people who remain loyal to the brand, even after the store lights go out. But they are typically much reduced affairs. American Apparel, which went bankrupt and closed all its stores a few years ago, now sells hoodies and sweatpants online.
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It's possible, not probable, this quarterback falls to the Patriots. Irving didn't inform Nash of his absence or respond when his head coach checked in. Last week, Tom Brady perfectly channeled Rob Gronkowski with an amazing impression when asked about one of his favorite memories of his long-time teammate -- and on Wednesday, it was Gronk's turn to return the favor.
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A trip to Los Angeles proved to be just what the San Antonio Spurs needed to snap out of an early-season slump. Two nights after beating the Clippers to snap a four-game losing streak, the Spurs picked up another win at Staples Center on Thursday, this time defeating the Los Angeles Lakers LaMarcus Aldridge led San Antonio with a season-high 28 points and was one of five in double figures.